study guide

Name_________Emily___________________ class___10_______ due date___April 10th_____________ (week of April 1st)

Study Guide International communication: shifting paradigms, theories and foci of interest
by Lucky Madikiza & Elirea Bornman Theory Free Flow of Information Summary (main ideas) * The West demands for an unrestrained flow of information without regulation and censorship of the media to promote democracy and spread the Western doctrine to the international community, which really benefits the West a lot in economic, cultural and political aspects. Response (your reaction) * As far as I am concerned, if Third World countries want to have an equal development, they should first develop their own international media, telecommunications infrastructures and communication technologies to spread their own ideas and advertise their own products to the international community. From the fact that the Soviet Union was finally defeated during the Cold War, we learn that ideological battles among countries are vital. Third World countries should do more for greater international influence. Some shortcomings in the modernization theory : 1. Take China for example. With the accelerated pace of modernization, the problems of gap between the rich and the poor have become more and more serious. And because of the urbanization process, some farmers even lost their homeland. 2. In the process of modernization, traditional cultures which I think is very precious have been neglected. 3. The theory emphasized the models of developed countries can be transferred into developing countries. But I think it must be difficult and unacceptable, because different countries have different national conditions. So we just can borrow parts from the models considering our own national conditions. Although critics of the dependency

Modernization Theory

International mass media can promote the process of modernization by spreading the message of modernity, transferring Western economic and political models and transforming and modernizing traditional societies.

Dependency Theory

The centre exercises control over

the periphery by determining the terms of global trade and the structure of global markets. Development of the periphery depends on the centre countries’ technology, investment, media products and necessary imports, which is called ‘dependent development’. Such development leads to ‘cultural imperialism’, ‘media imperialism’ and ‘electronic colonialism’.

Structural Imperialism


Critical Theory

Public Sphere

theory said media audiences are not passive receivers, I think people are still easily influenced by the mass media, especially those who didn’t receive high education. And in poor countries, so-called the ‘periphery’, the majority of people don’t have chance to receive high education, so they are more easily influenced by mass media. In my opinion, if poor countries still develop in such dependent way, they will finally be in the complete control of the centre and lose all indigenous cultures. There are more interactions 1. I think more interactions and cobetween the centre and periphery, operations are needed between while little or no between peripheries to change current peripheries. So peripheries become unequal situation and break their dependent on the centers. But their dependence on the centre. exchange relationships are unequal. 2. But I also think the inequality is reasonable. The distribution of power determines national behavior and benefits. Hegemony means that the 1. The control of social dominant class controls and ideologies—culture hegemony is dominates social ideologies by the core of domination. means of institutions to wield 2. Question:If the mass media are power. The international mass free from governmental control and media are required to propagate without regulation and censorship, and maintain the dominant the contents of information from ideologies. media must be various. So how do the mass media always serve as a powerful tool to maintain and propagate the dominant ideologies? In capitalist societies, culture is To be honest, I haven’t got the commodified and becomes cultural main points of critical theory. products including films, radio I think the commodification of programmes, music and magazines. culture brings some benefits, and The increasing corporisation of cultural products do make a great cultural industries and the global difference. Now we enrich our lives spread of mainly western cultural by reading books, watching products have led to the gradual movies, listening to music and so marginalization of cultural on, which greatly influence our messages that do not take forms of opinions, ideas and attitudes. marketable commodities. However, it is important for us to be active receivers and learn to receive the information from such products critically. The public sphere is an arena where 1. I think the development of media a community of individuals is can not hinder the public sphere, drawn together by participating in but strengthen its influence. Media rational-critical debates concerning (newspaper, radio, television,

the interests of the bourgeois civil society and the state. In the 20th century, due to the commercialization of mass media, free and critical debate within the public sphere has been undermined and ignored, which was called ‘refeudalisation’.

Critical (cultural) Studies

Theories of Information Society

Discourses of Globalization

magazines, etc.) are useful tools to spread information that is formed in the public sphere and to exert more influence on the receivers. 2. I also think free and critical debate within the public sphere is very necessary. From the public opinion, the ruler and government can know the needs of the nation and society, and then make adjustments immediately, which will help to establish a harmonious society. Cultural studies tend to focus on The cultural theorists’ focus is no communication as a cultural longer elite culture, but popular process. The main interests of culture which even includes the cultural theorists are the ideologies, daily life of ordinary people. It textual analysis of media texts and changes people’s impression that ethnographic research. They culture is serious and distant. I emphasize the marginalized, think it is one of the main ordinary and popular culture. contributions of cultural studies. The explosive development and In information society, both global expansion of ICTs and the countries and individuals are facing Internet particularly have created more opportunities and challenges an international information than before. Disparities between society, which will have positive the centre and the periphery with social and economic consequences. regard to access to ICTs still exist. We, as teenagers of developing countries, ought to learn much about new technologies, and then do our best to help our country. Only when our country is powerful and prosperous, will the people be rich and happy. Globalization is a process in which 1. I think so-called cultural the development of media and ICTs imperialism has been gradually give rise to worldwide close-related weakened. Through the great economic, political, cultural and efforts of developing countries, the social relations. Globalization has flow of information is no longer great impact on everyone’s daily one-way from the center to the life. periphery, but also from the periphery to the center and between the peripheries. It undoubtedly has become much more complex. 2. And I think the western influence on the east is limited. For example, a kind of food imported from the west to the east must be changed greatly or slightly to cater for people’s taste if it wants to be accepted. So I think one group of people can’t easily and totally change another group of people.

Ethnic roots and sense of nationality exists all the time during the transnational communication. The worry that globalization will result in the disappearance of racial, cultural and other differences is unnecessary. I believe in the future, all people from different races will live in the ‘global village’ without border but with their own national identity. * Summary: key points, definitions, important facts or support (no minor details), examples * Response: your own ideas, interpretation, opinions, comments, connections, evaluation, questions



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