hk115com:2019年高一数学平面向量的数量积1.ppt_图文

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平面向量的数量积

一、引入:
一个物体在力F 的作用下产生 的位移s,那么力F 所做的功 应当怎样计算?
F

θ

S

力做的功:W = |F|?|s|cos?,?是F与s的夹角

向量的数量积
?1.两个非零向量夹角的概念

OB =b,则∠AOB=θ ?已知非零向量a与b,作 OA =a,
(0≤θ≤π)叫a与b的夹角. 说明: (1)当θ=0时,a与b同向; (2)当θ=π时,a与b反向; (3)当θ=π/2时,a与b垂直,
b O a

b
O

a

记a⊥b;

?(4)注意在两向量的夹角定义中,两向量必 须是同起点

的.范围0?≤?≤180?

平面向量数量积(内积)的定义: 已知两个非零向量a与b,它们的夹角是θ,则数量 |a||b|cos?叫a与b的数量积,记作a?b,即有 a?b =|a||b|cos?,(0≤θ≤π).
规定0与任何向量的数量积为0。 ?探究:两个向量的数量积与向量同实数积有很大区别 (1)两个向量的数量积是一个实数,不是向量,符号由 cos?的符号所决定。 (2)两个向量的数量积称为内积,写成a?b;符号“· ”在 向量运算中不是乘号,既不能省略,也不能用“×”代替. (3)在实数中,若a?0,且a?b=0,则b=0;在数量积中, 若a?0,且a?b=0,能不能推出b=0?为什么? (4)由a?b = b?c 能否推出a = c ?

(5)在实数中,有(a?b)c = a(b?c),但是(a?b)c ? a(b?c) 显然,这是因为左端是与c共线的向量,而右端是与a共 线的向量,而一般a与c不共线。

3.“投影”的概念: 定义:|b|cos?叫做向量b在a方向上的投影。
投影也是一个数量,不是向量; 当?为锐角时投影为正值; 当?为钝角时投影为负值; 当?为直角时投影为0; 当? = 0?时投影为 |b|; 当? = 180?时投影为 ?|b|。 4.向量的数量积的几何意义: 数量积a?b等于a的长度与b在a方向上投影|b|cos?的乘积。

?5.两个向量的数量积的性质:

设a、b为两个非零向量,e是与b同向的单位向量。 1? e?a = a?e =|a|cos? 2? a?b ? a?b = 0 3? 当a与b同向时,a?b = |a||b|;当a与b反向时, a?b = ?|a||b|。
?特例:a?a = |a|2或 | a |? a ? a

a ?b 4? cos? = | a || b |

5? |a?b| ≤ |a||b|

例1 判断正误,并简要说明理由. ①a· 0=0; ②0· a=0; ③0- BA = AB ; ④|a· b|=|a||b|; ⑤若a≠0,则对任一非零b有a· b≠0; ⑥a· b=0,则a与b中至少有一个为0; ⑦对任意向量a,b,с都有(a· b)с=a?(b· с); ⑧a与b是两个单位向量,则a2=b2.

例2 已知|a|=3,|b|=6, 当①a∥b,②a⊥b, ③a与b的夹角是60°时,分别求a· b.

例3 判断下列命题的真假: 在△ABC中,若 AB BC ? 0 ,则△ABC是锐角三角形; 在△ABC中,若 AB BC ? 0 ,则△ABC是钝角三角形; △ABC为直角三角形的充要条件是 AB BC ? 0 例4 试证明:若四边形ABCD满足 AB ? CD ? 0, 且AB BC ? 0, 则四边形ABCD为矩形. 例5 设正三角形ABC的边长为

2, AB ? c, BC ? a, CA ? b, 求a b ? b c ? c a.
五、作业:习题5.6 1~6. 《优化设计》P81 强化训练 1~8.


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