2016 alevel模拟卷-4


Cambridge International Examinations Cambridge International Advanced Subsidiary and Advanced Level

* 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 *

BIOLOGY Paper 4 A Level Structured Questions SPECIMEN PAPER

9700/04
For Examination from 2016 2 hours

Candidates answer on the Question Paper. No Additional Materials are required. READ THESE INSTRUCTIONS FIRST Write your Centre number, candidate number and name on all the work you hand in. Write in dark blue or black pen. You may use an HB pencil for any diagrams or graphs. Do not use staples, paper clips, glue or correction ?uid. DO NOT WRITE IN ANY BARCODES. Section A Answer all questions. Section B Answer one question. Electronic calculators may be used. At the end of the examination, fasten all your work securely together. The number of marks is given in brackets [ ] at the end of each question or part question.

This document consists of 24 printed pages and 2 blank pages.
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2 Section A Answer all the questions. 1 Corals are simple marine animals and usually exist in colonies of thousands of individuals. Fig. 1.1 shows a coral colony.

Fig. 1.1 Corals absorb calcium carbonate from the sea to build their skeletons, which help to form large coral reefs. Coral reefs provide a home for about 25% of known ?sh species and have the highest biodiversity of any marine ecosystem. (a) Corals, although they are animals, are sometimes mistaken for members of the plant kingdom. State two ways in which corals differ from plants. ................................................................................................................................................... ................................................................................................................................................... ................................................................................................................................................... .............................................................................................................................................. [2]

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3 (b) Outline what is meant by the term ecosystem. ................................................................................................................................................... ................................................................................................................................................... ................................................................................................................................................... ................................................................................................................................................... .............................................................................................................................................. [2] (c) Coral reefs are at risk of damage due to human activities. All the coral reefs in three regions were classi?ed as being at low, medium or high risk of damage. Table 1.1 shows the areas of coral reef at risk of damage in these three regions. Table 1.1 area of coral reef at risk of damage (× 103 km2) low Caribbean Sea Indian Ocean Paci?c Ocean (i) (ii) 9 20 60 medium 8 15 30 high 7 10 9 [1] percentage of coral reef at high risk of damage 29

region

Complete Table 1.1, giving your answers, to the nearest whole number. Suggest how human activities could damage coral reefs.

........................................................................................................................................... ........................................................................................................................................... ........................................................................................................................................... ........................................................................................................................................... ........................................................................................................................................... ........................................................................................................................................... ........................................................................................................................................... ...................................................................................................................................... [3] [Total: 8]

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4 2 ATP is the universal energy currency which provides the immediate source of energy for cellular processes. (a) Fig. 2.1 shows some ways in which ATP may be synthesised and used in cells.

ATP
oxidative phosphorylation

anabolic reactions e.g. ...................................

cellular work ................................... phosphorylation e.g. ..................................

photophosphorylation

movement

ADP
Fig. 2.1 (i) (ii) Complete Fig. 2.1 by writing correct terms or examples on the three dotted lines provided. [3] Name the molecule that is required to react with ATP in order to convert ATP into ADP and an inorganic phosphate. ...................................................................................................................................... [1] (iii) Name the membrane-bound enzyme responsible for phosphorylating ADP to make ATP. ...................................................................................................................................... [1]

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5 BLANK PAGE

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6 (b) During a sporting event an athlete may have to carry out respiration in anaerobic as well as aerobic conditions to produce suf?cient ATP. Fig. 2.2 outlines both processes in a muscle cell and shows how a liver cell is linked to these processes. liver cell

muscle cell

ATP

Fig. 2.2 You may refer to Fig. 2.2 in answering questions (i) to (v).

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7 (i) Glucose produced in the liver cell can be released into the blood to maintain blood glucose concentration. State one use of glucose within the liver cell. ........................................................................................................................................... ...................................................................................................................................... [1] (ii) Suggest why respiration is said to be less ef?cient in anaerobic conditions than in aerobic conditions. ........................................................................................................................................... ........................................................................................................................................... ........................................................................................................................................... ........................................................................................................................................... ...................................................................................................................................... [2] (iii) Complete the table to indicate, within the muscle cell, the exact locations of glycolysis, the link reaction, the Krebs cycle and oxidative phosphorylation. process glycolysis link reaction Krebs cycle oxidative phosphorylation [4] (iv) Glucose is phosphorylated at the start of glycolysis in the muscle cell. Suggest why this phosphorylated glucose does not diffuse out of the cell into the surrounding tissue ?uid. ........................................................................................................................................... ........................................................................................................................................... ........................................................................................................................................... ........................................................................................................................................... ...................................................................................................................................... [2] (v) Additional oxygen is required in the metabolic pathways involved in the conversion of lactate to glucose. State the term given to this additional oxygen. ...................................................................................................................................... [1] [Total: 15]
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exact location

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8 3 (a) The human kidneys process 1200 cm3 of blood every minute. This 1200 cm3 of blood contains 700 cm3 of plasma. As this blood passes through the glomeruli of the kidneys, 125 cm3 of ?uid passes into the renal capsules (Bowman’s capsules). This ?uid is called the glomerular ?ltrate and is produced by a process is called ultra?ltration. (i) Calculate the percentage of plasma that passes into the renal capsules. Show your working and give your answer to one decimal place.

answer ...................................................... % [2] (ii) Explain how the structure of the glomerular capillaries is adapted for ultra?ltration. ........................................................................................................................................... ........................................................................................................................................... ........................................................................................................................................... ........................................................................................................................................... ........................................................................................................................................... ...................................................................................................................................... [2] (b) Explain why the epithelial cells of the proximal convoluted tubule have many mitochondria in them. ................................................................................................................................................... ................................................................................................................................................... ................................................................................................................................................... .............................................................................................................................................. [2] (c) Of the 125 cm3 of glomerular ?ltrate that enters the renal capsules each minute, only 45 cm3 reaches the loops of Henle. Name two substances that are reabsorbed into the blood from the proximal convoluted tubule, apart from water. ................................................................................................................................................... .............................................................................................................................................. [2] [Total: 8]
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9 4 Fig. 4.1 shows a diagram of a stoma, its guard cells and adjacent epidermal cells. stoma nucleus

cytoplasm epidermal cell

guard cells nucleus Fig. 4.1 (a) Guard cells have chloroplasts while epidermal cells do not have chloroplasts. State one other difference, visible in Fig. 4.1, between guard cells and epidermal cells. ................................................................................................................................................... .............................................................................................................................................. [1] (b) During stomatal closure: (i) state precisely where abscisic acid (ABA) binds ...................................................................................................................................... [1] (ii) identify the ion that diffuses from the guard cells to epidermal cells ...................................................................................................................................... [1] (iii) compare the relative water potential of the guard cells with that of epidermal cells .......................................................................................................................................[1] (iv) describe the change in volume of the guard cells. ...................................................................................................................................... [1]

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10 (c) The following experiment was carried out to investigate the effect of light intensity on the rate of photosynthesis of a water plant, Elodea. ? ? ? ? ? ? Elodea was cut into three pieces, each 10 cm long. Each piece of Elodea was placed in a glass tube, containing 0.5% sodium hydrogen carbonate solution, which was then sealed with a bung. Tube A was placed 10 cm away from a lamp. Tube B was placed 5 cm away from a lamp. Tube C was placed in a dark room. An oxygen sensor was used to measure the percentage of oxygen in the solutions at the start of the experiment and again at 5, 10 and 20 minutes.

The results are shown in Fig. 4.2. 9 B A

8

percentage of oxygen in solution

7

6 0 0 5 10 time / minutes 15

C

20

Fig. 4.2

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11 (i) State why sodium hydrogencarbonate solution was used. ........................................................................................................................................... ...................................................................................................................................... [1] (ii) Calculate the mean rate of oxygen production for tube A for the 20 minutes of the experiment. Give your answer to two decimal places. Show your working.

answer .......................................................... [2] (iii) Compare the results for tubes A and B. ........................................................................................................................................... ........................................................................................................................................... ........................................................................................................................................... ...................................................................................................................................... [2] (iv) Explain the results for tube C. ........................................................................................................................................... ........................................................................................................................................... ........................................................................................................................................... ...................................................................................................................................... [2] (v) Suggest what factor, which may have an effect on the rate of photosynthesis, was not taken into account in this experiment. ...................................................................................................................................... [1]

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12 (d) Fig. 4.3 shows the relationship between the light dependent and light independent reactions in a chloroplast.

H 2O

light dependent reactions

O2

X

Y

CO2

Calvin cycle

sugar

Fig. 4.3 Name substances X and Y in Fig. 4.3. X ............................................................................................................................................... Y .......................................................................................................................................... [2] [Total: 15]

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14 5 (a) Explain what is meant by the term heterozygous genotype. heterozygous ............................................................................................................................ ................................................................................................................................................... genotype ................................................................................................................................... .............................................................................................................................................. [2] (b) The budgerigar, Melopsittacus undulatus, is a small type of parrot that is native to Australia. Fig. 5.1 shows a budgerigar.

Fig. 5.1 A budgerigar can have blue, green, yellow or white feathers. Two genes, A/a and D/d, are involved in the inheritance of feather colour in budgerigars. ? ? ? ? A bird which has at least one dominant allele A but is homozygous for d has blue feathers. A bird which has at least one dominant allele D but is homozygous for a has yellow feathers. A bird with at least one dominant A allele and one dominant D allele has green feathers. A bird that is homozygous for a and d has white feathers.

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15 Two green-feathered budgerigars, heterozygous at both gene loci, were crossed. Draw a genetic diagram of this cross to show the probability of producing offspring with yellow feathers.

[6] [Total: 8]

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16 6 The Death Valley region of Nevada in the USA used to have an extensive lake system. Approximately 20 000 years ago the lakes started to dry up and they now consist of isolated small pools. Four different species of the desert pup?sh have been found living in these pools. Evidence indicates that over 20 000 years ago there was only one species of pup?sh living in the lake system. Fig. 6.1 shows a desert pup?sh.

Fig. 6.1 (a) Explain how the change from an extensive lake system to just a few pools could have resulted in the evolution of four species of desert pup?sh. ................................................................................................................................................... ................................................................................................................................................... ................................................................................................................................................... ................................................................................................................................................... ................................................................................................................................................... ................................................................................................................................................... ................................................................................................................................................... ................................................................................................................................................... ................................................................................................................................................... ................................................................................................................................................... .............................................................................................................................................. [5]

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17 (b) Suggest what may happen to the desert pup?sh if water levels rise and the pools once more form an extensive lake system. ................................................................................................................................................... ................................................................................................................................................... ................................................................................................................................................... ................................................................................................................................................... ................................................................................................................................................... ................................................................................................................................................... .............................................................................................................................................. [3] [Total: 8]

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18 7 The Venus ?y trap, Dionaea muscipula, is a carnivorous plant. It has traps which catch insects. Each trap consists of a pair of modi?ed leaves joined by a midrib of hinge cells. The modi?ed leaves have touch-sensitive hairs. If two hairs are touched within 20 seconds, or the same hair is touched twice in rapid succession, the trap closes. (a) Explain how touching the hairs results in closure of the trap. ................................................................................................................................................... ................................................................................................................................................... ................................................................................................................................................... ................................................................................................................................................... ................................................................................................................................................... ................................................................................................................................................... ................................................................................................................................................... ................................................................................................................................................... ................................................................................................................................................... ................................................................................................................................................... ................................................................................................................................................... ................................................................................................................................................... ................................................................................................................................................... .............................................................................................................................................. [5]

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19 (b) D. muscipula grows naturally in a small region in eastern USA. Fires that destroy much of the vegetation occur in this region. Three sites in this region where there had been ?res were identi?ed and investigated. ? ? ? Site 1 had experienced a ?re 2 years before. Site 2 had experienced a ?re 10 years before. Site 3 had experienced a ?re 30 years before.

Preliminary observations suggested that over the course of time following a ?re, the biodiversity of plants had increased. However, the abundance of Venus ?y trap plants had decreased and so had the light intensity available to them. There was also a decrease in the nitrogen that the plants absorbed from insects as a proportion of all the nitrogen they obtained from their environment. Name an ecological or statistical method to measure: (i) the abundance of D. muscipula at each site ...................................................................................................................................... [1] (ii) plant biodiversity at each site ...................................................................................................................................... [1] (iii) the strength of the relationship between light intensity and the proportion of nitrogen absorbed from insects, after taking measurements from a large number of plants. ...................................................................................................................................... [1] [Total: 8]

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20 8 Fig. 8.1 shows the proportion of cotton, maize and soybeans grown in the USA that are genetically modi?ed in two different ways: ? ? HT crops are modi?ed to be resistant to the herbicide glyphosate Bt crops are modi?ed to express the Bt toxin which kills insect pests.

percentage of total crop grown that is genetically modified 100 HT soybeans 80 HT cotton 60 Bt cotton Bt maize 40 93 85 82 76 75

HT maize 20

0 1996

1998

2000

2002

2004 year Fig. 8.1

2006

2008

2006

2008

(a) (i)

With reference to Fig. 8.1, describe the change in the percentage of genetically modi?ed cotton grown in the USA since 1996. ........................................................................................................................................... ........................................................................................................................................... ........................................................................................................................................... ........................................................................................................................................... ........................................................................................................................................... ........................................................................................................................................... ........................................................................................................................................... ...................................................................................................................................... [3]

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21 (ii) Name a vector suitable for genetically modifying plant cells. ...................................................................................................................................... [1] (iii) The HT crops received two new genes that gave resistance to glyphosate herbicide and also a marker gene called GUS. The parts of the plant that express the GUS gene turn blue when dipped into a colourless chemical substrate. Explain why the GUS gene was also transferred to the genetically modi?ed crops. ........................................................................................................................................... ........................................................................................................................................... ........................................................................................................................................... ........................................................................................................................................... ...................................................................................................................................... [2] (b) Fig. 8.2 shows the increase in the number of weed species resistant to glyphosate herbicide and triazine herbicides since 1970. Crops have not been genetically modi?ed to resist triazine herbicides. 75 triazines

50 number of resistant weed species 25 glyphosate

0 1970

1980

1990 year Fig. 8.2

2000

2010

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22 (i) With reference to Fig. 8.1 and Fig. 8.2, justify the statement that the rise in glyphosate-resistant weeds has resulted from the introduction of genetically modi?ed crops. ........................................................................................................................................... ........................................................................................................................................... ........................................................................................................................................... ........................................................................................................................................... ........................................................................................................................................... ...................................................................................................................................... [2] (ii) Give one piece of evidence from Fig. 8.2 to support the idea that the development of weeds resistant to herbicides is not due to horizontal gene transfer from genetically modi?ed crops. ........................................................................................................................................... ........................................................................................................................................... ........................................................................................................................................... ...................................................................................................................................... [1] (iii) Outline how herbicide resistance in weeds arises and spreads without horizontal gene transfer. ........................................................................................................................................... ........................................................................................................................................... ........................................................................................................................................... ........................................................................................................................................... ........................................................................................................................................... ........................................................................................................................................... ........................................................................................................................................... ........................................................................................................................................... ........................................................................................................................................... ........................................................................................................................................... ........................................................................................................................................... ...................................................................................................................................... [4]

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23 (c) Crops such as maize and cotton are genetically modi?ed to produce Bt toxins to protect them against insect pests. When these GM crops ?rst became available it was predicted that insect pests would develop resistance to these toxins. The extent of Bt resistance in insect pest species was surveyed in 2005 and in 2011. The level of resistance in each species was classi?ed according to the highest percentage of resistant individuals recorded in any population anywhere in the world. Three levels of resistance were identi?ed: ? ? ? <1% 1–6% >50%

There were no reports of populations of insect pests having between 6% and 50% of resistant individuals. The results of the surveys are shown in Table 8.1. Table 8.1 number of insect pest species susceptible to Bt toxins 8 4 number of insect pest species with reported levels of resistance <1% 0 3 1–6% 0 1 >50% 1 5

year

total number of insect pest species surveyed 9 13

2005 2011

The results in the table show that levels of resistance to Bt toxins have increased between 2005 and 2011. Suggest two other pieces of information that are needed to assess the signi?cance of the results of the surveys. ................................................................................................................................................... ................................................................................................................................................... ................................................................................................................................................... ................................................................................................................................................... .............................................................................................................................................. [2] [Total: 15]

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24 Section B Answer one question. 9 (a) Describe the action of glucagon on liver cells in the regulation of blood glucose concentration. [9] (b) Outline how a dip stick can measure the concentration of glucose and suggest advantages of using an electronic biosensor instead of a dip stick. [6] [Total: 15] 10 (a) Explain how the lac operon is involved in the metabolism of lactose in Escherichia coli. (b) Describe the role of gibberellin in the germination of barley. [9] [6] [Total: 15] ................................................................................................................................................... ................................................................................................................................................... ................................................................................................................................................... ................................................................................................................................................... ................................................................................................................................................... ................................................................................................................................................... ................................................................................................................................................... ................................................................................................................................................... ................................................................................................................................................... ................................................................................................................................................... ................................................................................................................................................... ................................................................................................................................................... ................................................................................................................................................... ................................................................................................................................................... ................................................................................................................................................... ................................................................................................................................................... ................................................................................................................................................... ...................................................................................................................................................
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25 ................................................................................................................................................... ................................................................................................................................................... ................................................................................................................................................... ................................................................................................................................................... ................................................................................................................................................... ................................................................................................................................................... ................................................................................................................................................... ................................................................................................................................................... ................................................................................................................................................... ................................................................................................................................................... ................................................................................................................................................... ................................................................................................................................................... ................................................................................................................................................... ................................................................................................................................................... ................................................................................................................................................... ................................................................................................................................................... ................................................................................................................................................... ................................................................................................................................................... ................................................................................................................................................... ................................................................................................................................................... ................................................................................................................................................... ................................................................................................................................................... ................................................................................................................................................... ................................................................................................................................................... ................................................................................................................................................... ................................................................................................................................................... ................................................................................................................................................... ...................................................................................................................................................
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26 ................................................................................................................................................... ................................................................................................................................................... ................................................................................................................................................... ................................................................................................................................................... ................................................................................................................................................... ................................................................................................................................................... ................................................................................................................................................... ................................................................................................................................................... ................................................................................................................................................... ................................................................................................................................................... ................................................................................................................................................... ................................................................................................................................................... ................................................................................................................................................... ................................................................................................................................................... ................................................................................................................................................... ................................................................................................................................................... ................................................................................................................................................... ................................................................................................................................................... ................................................................................................................................................... ................................................................................................................................................... ................................................................................................................................................... ................................................................................................................................................... ...................................................................................................................................................
Copyright Acknowledgements: Question 1 Figure 1.1 Question 5 Figure 5.1 Question 6 Figure 6.1 ? Chris Rout / Alamy; Coral; www.alamy.com. ? Juniors Bildarchiv GmbH / Alamy; Budgerigar on Branch; www.alamy.com. ? blickwinkel / Alamy; Desert Pup?sh (Cyprinodon macularius), male in nuptial coloration, USA, Arizona, Phoenix; www.alamy. com.

Permission to reproduce items where third-party owned material protected by copyright is included has been sought and cleared where possible. Every reasonable effort has been made by the publisher (UCLES) to trace copyright holders, but if any items requiring clearance have unwittingly been included, the publisher will be pleased to make amends at the earliest possible opportunity. Cambridge International Examinations is part of the Cambridge Assessment Group. Cambridge Assessment is the brand name of University of Cambridge Local Examinations Syndicate (UCLES), which is itself a department of the University of Cambridge.

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