（2010 级硕士生） 要求： 1. 建议每次上课前完成英汉 / 汉英各 3 篇短文的翻译。课前要做好 准备，课后要复习，要设法消化所学知识。详细讲解的内容就是 考试重点。 2. 翻译课以汉译英为主，学习重点是常见词和句型的用法，目的是 提高使用效率和准确性，避免“千疮百孔”的英语。翻译时要注 意冠词、名词单复数、动词形式和句法。简练是上策，讲究创新。 英译汉练习重点学会意译。 3. 写作时要重视语法、表达和结尾。作文不是口语会话，要讲究句 式多变，多用名词和介词，使语言正式优美。切记：不要上网抄 袭他人使用的句子或范文，否则影响自己的成绩。 4. 正确的学习方法是多观察、多思考和多比较。英语不是“背”出 来的，而是“悟”出来的。 5. 第一节课 7.50 分开始，第三节课从 9.50 分开始，欢迎提出问题或 建议。
英译汉 40 篇
Quitting smoking is more of a matter of willpower than of individual choice, for smoking is widely recognized as addictive. Although counseling and medication can increase the odds that a smoker quits permanently, the best way to avoid dilemmas is never to take up smoking to begin with. The irreversible effects of cigarette smoking vary in intensity and are related both to the amount and duration of exposure and the age at which the person is initially exposed. This report challenges the notion that a few years of exposure to smoking will have no lasting harmful consequences. We hope to discourage this prevalent but vital habit and suggest that tobacco-related health effects decline substantially as time away from smoking increases. Reverse
You appear in my heart more often than you know. Exceptional Win worldwide recognition Old Age Visison Unique touch
There used to be the belief that… ..express the belief that… Authentic real Have easy access to the Internet Make sth more available and accessible = improve the availability and accessibility of sth availability of information
2. （2005.06） This book derives from decades of teaching in various schools across the country. It is based on the belief that philosophy is a genuinely exciting subject, accessible not only to gifted undergraduate majors but to everyone. Everyone is a philosopher, whether enrolled in a philosophical course or not. The difference is that someone who has studied philosophy systematically has the advantage of having encountered stronger and more varied arguments than might have been available otherwise. Authentic real There used to be the belief that… There is a She was able to prevent what otherwise might have been a terrible accident. She is somewhat lazy, but she is otherwise perfect. What is strange ____ Americans is that…
In with about to Special funny strange remarkable extraordinary interesting unusual There is sth / nothing ….about… There was nothing unusual about this city that morning What is ….about sth is that…. The most interesting thing about…is that…
She is going to do sth ____ what she dislikes ____ herself For---with with---for about---about for---on What is special about this book is that it offers introductory students the opportunity of having direct contact with substantial readings from significant books on philosophy, but without the unreasonable demand that they confront these books in full, which are often incomprehensible.
Requirements: 1. be here by 9.50 2. take a lot of notes 3. revision is necessary 4. think and associate learn and unlearn 5. other books 6. both a blessing and a curse
Topic for writing (about 150 words) Which teaches you more about life, fiction or textbooks? Stick to one choice instead of commenting equally on both
fiction learn knowledge / textbooks recognize the world let me know giving me a love of life a life of love
3. （2006.06） Social progress has done away with the need for backbreaking work and has provided
time and leisure for personality development. With it, indeed because of it, today the middle-class family expects each of its members to develop his unique personality, and so does each individual, more or less, himself. This new obligation of the family to provide a setting for the development of a unique personality makes family consensus extremely difficult, if not impossible. Nothing is more problematic for a small group of quite different, unique individuals than to live in close quarters, in close harmony with each other. Besides, the necessity of cultivating teenagers’ moral character adds to the difficulty in parenting.
The flat world
One of the unintended consequences of the globalization is that it puts different societies and cultures in much greater direct contact with one another. It connects people to people much faster than people and cultures can often prepare themselves. Some cultures thrive on the sudden opportunities for collaboration that this global intimacy makes possible. Others are frustrated, and even humiliated by this close contact, which, among other things, makes it easy for people to see where they stand in the world in relation to everyone else. All of this helps to account for the emergence of one of the most devastating forces today – terrorist organizations which have no regard for human lives and which it is
in our best interest to wipe out.
5. （2007.06） this book, we offer advice that In we hope will seem reasonable and worth serious consideration. But as any experienced writer knows, there are occasions when even the best advice may not apply. The demands of writing for different audiences, with different purposes, on different subjects, at different levels of formality are so varied that they cannot begin to be anticipated in a book like this, and we recognize that what is appropriate for one piece of writing may not be appropriate for another. In most cases, you will have to avoid ambiguity at all costs so as not to leave your words open to
7. When dominant innovators in a science respond to the challenge of a situation that demands some change in its practice, this may take a number of forms, and rival schools may grow up around different leaders responding differently to a particular situation. These rivalries may be reinforced and perpetuated by the use of standard textbooks. Any empirical science must be able to cope with its own phenomena, and once any observation is accepted as relevant, its theory and modes of description and analysis must be able to handle it with scientific adequacy, of which exhaustiveness, consistency, economy are basic principles.
The extension of a science to new but relevant fields may require the further elaboration and presentation of existing theory along previously-followed lines. Chief factors of success
Changes and developments in a science are determined by a number of causes. Every science grows from its past, and the state reached in a previous generation provides the starting point for the next. But no science is carried on in a vacuum, without reference to or contact with other sciences and the general atmosphere for learning. Scientists and men of learning are also men of their age and country, and they can’t live independent of the culture. Besides its own past, the course of science is also affected by the social context of its contemporary world and the intellectual premises in it. Applications of the science and the expectations that others have of it may be a very
important determinant of the direction of its growth and changes.
Human progress is greatly accelerated by the use of language in cultural transmission; the knowledge and experience acquired by a particular person can be passed on to another in language, so that no amount of demonstration can replace the role of language. In this connection the importance of the invention of printing can never be exaggerated. At the present time the achievements of anyone in any part of the world can be made available and accessible to anyone else able to read and capable of understanding what is involved.
From these uses of language, spoken and written, the most developed animal communication system, though given the courtesy title of language, is worlds away.
The reason for not classifying carbon dioxide as a pollutant is that it is a natural component of the atmosphere and needed by plants to carry out biological synthesis. No one would argue that carbon dioxide is a necessary component of the atmosphere any more than one would argue the fact that Vitamin D is necessary in the human diet. However, excess intake of Vitamin D can be extremely toxic. Living systems, be they an ecosystem or an organism, require that a delicate balance be maintained between certain compounds in order for the system to function normally.
When the excess presence of one substance threatens the wellbeing of an ecosystem, it becomes toxic despite the fact that it is required in small quantities. The Cantonese are characterized by the ….
18. One of E-mail’s chief virtues is that information can be exchanged without the participants having to interact simultaneously and without the drawbacks of the telephone. A second advantage is its speed. In seconds your can send entire documents across time zones. E-mail gives people more flexibility in their schedules and sparing them the distractions that take up much time. Besides, E-mail eliminates the visual tokens of social status that are apparent to everyone in a face-to-face meeting. Ideas that are proposed on a computer network tend to be evaluated in terms of their merits more than their origin. The final advantage is psychological. It can nurture a sense of
connectedness and commitment in people who see themselves actively involved in a discussion. Be committed to
19. There is more to school education than instruction and passing knowledge. To live up to his or her image, a teacher at an elementary or secondary school has to have positive influence on the pupils in terms of manners, attitudes and views of life. It’s no exaggeration to claim that a teacher is a parent, consultant and role model all rolled into one. When a teacher has become someone to talk to, turn to and correspond to, his role as a friend is enhanced. Accompanied by teachers who are considerate, helpful and responsible, a child is likely to be imprinted by such good qualities and eventually does the same to others.
20. One of the chief concerns of wildlife management is the protection and improvement of the natural habitat so that animals have enough food and water to survive. Wildlife management involves care of the soil to produce good vegetation; it also involves care of plants, not only as a source of food, but as protection. Animals need cover to hide from their natural enemies and to raise their young safely. Just as crops are harvested, wildlife too must sometimes be “harvested”. By allowing limited hunting, good management can control certain species that threaten to overpopulate their habitat.
21. The standard educational or psychological tests are widely used to aid in selecting, classifying, assigning, or promoting students, employees and military personnel. But they have been the target of recent attacks in books, magazines, and even in Congress. The target is wrong, for in attacking the tests, critics divert attention from the fault that lies with ill-informed or incompetent users. The tests themselves are merely tools, with characteristics that can be measured with reasonable precision under specified conditions. Whether the results will be valuable, meaningless, or even misleading depends partly upon the tools themselves but largely upon the user.
22. To the average person knowledge itself is of importance because of its bearing upon what he needs to do and to make. It helps him in clarifying his wants, in constructing his ends and in finding means for realizing them. There exist, in other words, values as well as known facts and principles, and philosophy is concerned primarily with values – with the ends for the sake of which man acts. Given the most extensive and accurate system of knowledge, man is still confronted with the question of what he is going to do about it and what he is going to do with the knowledge in his possession.
23. Successive heavy snowfalls, which were rare in the past fifty years, struck the south of China, cutting off power supply and leaving expressways closed. On Sunday, heavy fog fell over parts of central China, further obstructing a transport system already paralyzed by weeks of snow, a day after one person was stamped to death by frustrated train passengers stranded for days. The fog covered parts of Human – one of the provinces hit worst by the odd winter storms – delaying flights and bringing road traffic to a halt. To make the matter worse, his disaster coincides with China’s Spring Festival.
24. The miracle silicon chip represents a development in the technology of mankind that over the past few years has acquired the force and significance associated with the development of hand tools or the discovery of the steam engine. Just as the Industrial Revolution took over an immense range of tasks from men’s muscles and enormously expanded productivity, so the microcomputer is rapidly assuming huge burdens of tedious work from the human brain and thereby expanding the mind’s capacities in ways that man is beginning to grasp. With the chip, remarkable achievements of memory and execution become possible in everything from farms to banks to corporate offices.
25. Recent history has demonstrated the need to change our conception of the process driven forward by competition. The price variable once perceived as the dominant aspect of the competitive process is now subordinate to the competition of the new product and technology. While in a highly competitive industry investment in innovation might meet resistance from management and stockholders who might be concerned with cost-cutting and large advertising budgets, it would be a shocking error to assume
that producers enjoying monopoly should favor abundant expenditures on research. Large-scale enterprises tend to operate more smoothly in stable circumstances, and their managerial bureaucracies tend to promote the status and resist the threat implied in change.
26. As a branch of cognitive science, linguistics, which has direct bearing on verbal communication, has undergone systematic exploration and explicit elaboration. The combination of linguistics and psychology has shed light on how an infant acquires the mother tongue and contributed to the great variety of teaching approaches to a foreign language. However, a keen insight into the process of language acquisition can’t be gained until the function of each part of the brain is disclosed. The myth that the earlier an infant learns a foreign language the better the result arises from the confusion of language acquisition with language learning. Scientists have yet to reach consensus on the best age to start learning a foreign language.
27. Efforts have been continually made to maintain the currency of this dictionary though annual updating. These efforts were for a time successful, at least in incorporating the newest additions to the language into the written record of that language. Eventually, however, it turned out that the flood of new terms, subtle changes in pronunciation and changes in attitudes toward numerous expressions had made a total revision of the dictionary necessary. The past two decades have witnessed an information explosion of unprecedented proportions. Rapid advances in science are bringing with them countless new terms and new applications of established terms.
28. If you think your kids are too young to worry about illness like heart disease and stroke, think again. There is increasing evidence that children are vulnerable to health problems stemming from inactivity and a high-fat diet. A 2004 study found that a total of 155 million children aged five to 17 worldwide are overweight. To be of good constitution, kids need a minimum of one hour of daily physical activity,
whether it be walking to school or joining a sports team. Regular exercise keeps weight under control, lowers blood pressure and wards off heart disease and depression. Better memory, observation and problem-solving skills may all be associated with increased physical activity.
29. There is no question that China and India are better off for having at least part of their population in the flattening world. When societies begin to prosper, you get a virtuous cycle going: They begin to produce enough food for the people to leave the land, the excess labor gets trained and education, it begins working in services and industry; that leads to innovation and better education and institutions of higher learning, free markets, economic growth and development, better infrastructure, fewer diseases and slower population growth.
30. Countries whose workers and industries are woven into a major global supply chain know that they cannot take an hour, a week, or a month off for war without disrupting industries and economies around the world and thereby risking the loss of their place in that supply chain for a long time, which could be extremely costly. For a country with no natural resources, being part of a global supply chain is like striking oil – oil that never runs out. And therefore, to get dropped from such a chain because you start a war is to have your oil wells go dry or have someone pour cement on them.
31. Each year natural disasters, some of which are of unimaginable magnitude, cause heavy casualties. It’s estimated that devastating floods alone cause losses of approximately 5 billion dollars. In flood-affected regions, reconstruction usually entails expenses that reach astronomical figures. Given the gravity of the situation, many countries as well as international agencies are intensifying their efforts to
make more accurate predictions and take precautions. One solution is to construct solid architectures that can survive extreme conditions in disaster-prone areas. Where misfortune never strikes once, people need to be alert to potential risks all the time.
32. History has been a fascinating sphere of research since ancient times. Unlike other disciplines of science, history can never reach accuracy. The most historians can do is approximate accuracy by recording past events realistically and interpreting these events objectively. The infinite number of historical figures and incidents makes impossible the documentation of everything that has happened, so historians have to make selections from the data available and accessible before deciding on the data that are deemed necessary and relevant. The fact that explanations on a particular event and its cause vary from historian to historian makes history all the more exciting.
33. Wildlife and wildlife habitat play a vital role in the ecological and biological processes that are essential to life itself. The functioning of the biosphere, and hence the maintenance and enhancement of human life, depends on countless interactions among plants, animals, and microorganisms. These ecological processes are essential for agriculture, fisheries, and other endeavors necessary to human life. They also help maintain environmental quality by decomposing and otherwise removing some pollutants and by preventing waste accumulation. Some of the biological processes in which wild species play a key role are seed dispersal, soil generation, nutrient cycling, habitat maintenance, waste breakdown and pest control
34. Creativity is by no means something one is just born with, nor is it necessarily a characteristic of high intelligence. Creativity is the ability to use the resources available to produce original ideas that are good for something. There are numerous things parents can do to facilitate the development of creativity of infants. They
can involve children in decision-making if the problem is appropriate by seeking their suggestions. It is of great importance to have children understand the consequence of various decisions. As children grow older, they are expected to decide more serious things. It does not matter if a child makes a wrong decision, for one of the most distinct features of creative people is a very strong motivation to make order out of confusion.
35. Fundamental science has provided us with an increasingly detailed and accurate understanding of nature. Advances in science are based on the pre-conditions that: a) Everything, including existing knowledge, is open to critical and unprejudiced inquiry. Science is often built on the destruction of existing patterns and is a continuously evolving process. b) Our minds, reason and our powers of observation are the tools for advancing knowledge. There are no mysteries that will resist scientific investigation. c) Science is the property of mankind and is our most precious human asset. d)All hypotheses and predictions are subject to the proof of scientific experiments. Knowledge is power and science is the power of powers.
Problematic constructions in writing:
1． As far as I’m concerned, I think this is due to… 2． There are at least three reasons to account for this. 3． Last but not the least At last at first however, each coin has two sides. 4． To this question, some think…and some people believe… 5． From what has been discussed above, we can safely draw the conclusion that…. 6． Compared with Chinese, English is more extensively used. 7． My parents can not allow me to play outside for long time. 8． You must be a pretty girl at that time. If the computer was not invented, we would…. 9． We entered a graduate school for updating our knowledge. 10. such as… and so on including…etc. …have many friends, for example, my roommates 11. I’ll try my best to learn. learn knowledge make friends as much as possible 12. Because of these reasons… the reason of her depression is that…. 13. In this way students are easier (possible) to get along well with each other. 14. She asked that how she could…. 15. When students learning English, they may encounter some difficulty.
16. As a graduate student, English is a must / we have to bear in mind that…. 17. My father is a government official, my mother is a high school teacher. Many boys are addicted to computer games, this shows that they are not interested in their lessons. 18. Different from mother (the same as my mother), my father enjoys reading. 19. This paper lays a foundation for further studies. 20. This paper aims to establish a HLTP method to study the mechanism of… 21. advice information knowledge fiction / sheep fish people police cattle / language society technology economy disease culture pleasure water 22. This book becomes more and more popular famous 23. This book is disappointed. We surprised to find….. we found…. surprisingly 24. we involved in this research / we concern with this crisis. 25. My mother used to ask me… On the contrary, my father did…. 26. There are many graduate students choose to the Ph.D program. 27. As is known to all that …. Only working hard (work hard ) can we … 28. access to Internet use computer take bus buy new cell phone 29. on one hand, the government is to…. On the other hand, we individuals must…. 30. with the development of society and technology, ….
汉译英（40 篇） 历年考题（1～6） ： 1． （2009.01) 中国学生在英语上花的时间比其他学科多得多，原因是英语需要泛读、机械记忆和经 常复习。老师让学生做大量涉及多项选择的练习，结果忽视了培养主动使用英语的能力。这种应试 教育方式有利也有弊。 Students in China spend much more time on English than on other subjects. Mechanical memorization and regular revision ?have sb do a lot of exercises Neglect the cultivation of the ability
Test-oriented teaching approach has both advantages and disadvantages Orientation Have sb do a lot of exercises involving / involved / involved in / involve multiple choices Students in China spend much / far more time on English than on other subjects / courses
I see you at ICU
intensive care unit extensive reading
mechanical memorization and regular revision
the fiction is important learn from textbooks made me thought more source sauce concider 2． （2009. 06） 在中国，拿硕士学位通常需要三年时间。第一年积累足够的学分后，学生 接着在后两年完成毕业论文。论文要有一定学术价值，还要反映学生的科研能力。人们 越来越重视学术诚信，这将有助于提高科学界的道德标准. A growing body of evidence suggests… Exhibit display manifest embody First-year students subsequent in the two years that follow in the two years to come abstract thesis essay paper dissertation PhD doctoral / doctorate students a master’s degree bachelor’s degree The reporter ____ a long time to send this information spent took consumed needed It took me about an hour to write this letter. It took about an hour for me to write this letter. I took about an hour to write this letter. This letter took me about an hour to write. Writing this letter took me about an hour I spent about an hour writing this letter. The central government spent millions of dollars to improve the infrastructure. This project will take years. It takes forever / ages. It takes courage and determination to do sth It takes a skilled worker to do sth It takes a thief to catch a thief.
Integrate integrity a man of integrity territorial integrity Proceed proceedings process procedure in the (subsequent) two years that follow the two years to come academic excellence academic performance Pile up credits After doing after class after being captured before being discovered washed after being cultured… in heart If discovered, you’ll when finished, this experiment… After washed being washed When we learning English, we should… To attain this goal, China spent twenty years. proceed Go on go on with go on doing go on to do
Be of: great value historical significance of little interest benefit use help be of little help Books of great interest to children Exercise is of many benefits the same different + type category family species age size nature origin color kind …books are of two kinds age size Oil is of marine origin these books are of two kinds be of different nature we are of the same age This old man was of the most praises praiseworthy Pay particular attention attach (primary) importance to give priority to weight to More and more increasing
lay emphasis on
A growing body of evidence Widen narrow shrink rise
Help be helpful for facilitate my recovery contribute to be a great help to be instrumental in doing go a long way towards sth immoral indecent moral ethic progress ethnic minorities American communities in Beijing field area realm sphere kingdom the scientific community ethnic minorities ethical progress
The increasing importance attached to academic integrity will contribute to / facilitate higher moral standards in the scientific community
The song is gaining popularity Area field sphere realm kingdom Ethical progress ethnic minorities Attach importance to place / lay emphasis on give priority to give weight to Academic honesty / integrity territorial integrity a person of integrity Reflect show exhibit manifest embody In the first year first-year students did you? What about you? And you? Not yet in the two years that follow to come in the days to come The paper has to be of some academic value. Academic performance excellence Thesis essay paper PhD doctoral / doctorate students Attach importance to / lay / put emphasis on highlight academic honesty / integrity integrate contribute to facilitate sth be instrumental in helpful
3． (2010.01) 生产相同数量的电，中国消耗的能源是世界平均水平的 4 倍。从本世纪处开始，增产节能是中国政府最 关注的事情之一。任何一个国家，不论是中国还是美国，只有为子孙的利益着想才有可能实现可持续发展。
Offspring later generations take into account / consideration Wildlife conservation conserve energy Water conservation projects increasing production and / while conserving energy has been …
This classroom is three times the size of my bedroom This river is five times the length of / as long as that one Beginning start turn outset onset threshold since increasing production
/ improving productivity wildlife conservation conserve energy Increasing production while conserving energy has been
Generate produce create make manufacture Amount number quality China consumes four times as much energy as the world average The energy that China consumes / consumed by China is four times as much as the world average The energy consumption in China is four times the world average. ………………………………………………… as much as the world average.
Since from after Beginning start onset
Increasing production / improving productivity while conserving energy Be concerned with / about / over One of the most concerned things of the government
Arouse worldwide concern controversy debate dispute conflict clash war over concerning concern this matter concerns each of us …one of the things / matters that the government is most concerned about. …………….most concerns * …………….most concerns about *
One of my concerns is that… At top speed the maximum benefit court biggest One of my utmost concerns the minimum cost utmost devotion supreme
No matter which / what
1. 不论你是否读过此书 不论你是学生还是研究人员 2.所有学生，不论高矮 所有积极和消极的因素 3. 任何一门语言，不论是汉语还是英语， 每一个城市，不论是纽约还是伦敦 4. 不论是学生还是老师 医生和患者都 alike 5. 不论怎样劝他都无法使他改变注意 钱再多也买不来健康 6. 不论是是否喜欢 相信
dead or alive Any language, be it Chinese or English / whether it be C or E
students and teaches alike talk about…. no amount of persuasion can change her mind come what may, chronic sustainable development
no amount of money can buy happiness
No country, be it…, can achieve sustainable development unless (without taking….) the interests of the offspring are taken into account / consideration chronic
This classroom is three times the size of my bedroom This river is five times the length of / as long as that one Beginning start turn outset onset threshold wildlife conservation conserve energy Increasing production while conserving energy has been
increasing production / improving productivity
只有…才能 without impossible without but never…unless Take into account consideration give consideration to Chronic sustainable development
需要： need require call for demand demanding take cost involve doing entail necessitate immediate settlement this requires the active participation (involvement) of each country in peace-keeping activities
show my dissatisfaction your work is satisfactory your work is unsatisfactory I’m satisfied with your work I nod my satisfaction
Fortunate unfortunate misfortune
She was so na? as to believe this man ve As to so as to so…as to only to
yet to she has yet to realize
经常接不定式充当定语的名词主要有: ability ambition attempt call campaign capacity claim commitment compulsion courage decision demand desire determination eagerness effort endeavor failure freedom hope inability inclination need obligation plan power pretension promise refusal reluctance request resolution resolve right struggle temptation tendency urge willingness wish be able to do the ability to do decide to do my decision to do sth 这些名词的特点是： a) 其形容词形式与不定式组合，如： able eager free ready reluctant unwilling willing b) 其动词要求接不定式充当宾语，如：
1. Along with the urge to be jack-of-all-trades goes a willingness to change from one occupation to another. The emphasis on success and achievement, coupled as it is with a desire to be loved and admired, leads to a critical dilemma of personality.
advantage prospect necessity process benefit importance result consequence thought fear
there is more to sth than sth advantages outnumber / outweigh disadvantages
4． （ 2010.06) 电信的高速发展使手机成为中 学生的宠儿。尽管手机有很多功能，但会 对青少年学习成绩产生一些负面影响，如 考试作弊、课堂不注意听讲。此外，经常 使用手机减少了面对面交流，而长期接触 手机辐射还会造成记忆力下降或增加患 脑瘤的概率。 Chronic exposure to the radiation from the cell phone ends up with a poorer memory / a decline in memory or increases the
chance / odds / prospect of developing a brain tumor be afflicted with diabetes The reduced price made possible worldwide use of penicillin in the treatment of pneumonia The very sight of the book reminds me of my tablemate Favor be in favor of favorable favorite my favorite fruit apple is my favorite …..has made the cell phone a favorite of teenagers adolescent ce juvenile delinquency in my teens popular among / with sb Fast / rapid development of telecommunications aging population Mobile cell cellular I often use the computer
5． Lead to / end up with a poorer memory the decline in memory or increase the chance (odds / prospect / likelihood)of developing a brain tumor Contact touch expose exposure Occasional outbreaks of Excessive use of fertilizer will cause… Punctual arrival of guests Such as cheating on a test, distraction at class lack of attention / concentration listening without attention attentively Has negative casually effect on adverse adversity Fast-developing adj fast development n The fast development of telecommunications has made the cell phone a favorite of / popular among high school students. Despite the important role the computer plays in scientific research, Despite its many functions
Teenager adolescent adolescence juvenile delinquency in my teens = as a teenager teen mothers She lacks money. She is lack of money. She lacks of money. She is lacking of money. She is lacking in money She lacks in money Lack of money forces her to do… Inconsistency Be short of = be lacking in shortage short supply inattention for lack of
6． （2008.06） 对于父母来说，孩子的教 育是头等大事。他们被迫让孩子上各种培 训班，以增加被理想学校录取的可能性， 结果抹杀了孩子的创造力和想象力。仅凭 书本知识不一定能保证学习成绩好。许多 中学正从应试教育向素质教育转变，给教 学方法革新带来希望。
The ongoing transformation from…to…in many high schools brings hope to the innovations Insure ensure make sure reassure look at you reassuringly innovations in teaching methodology ongoing Imaginative imaginary fictional fabricated image These rats are three times as likely to do…as Not necessarily Be second to none be compelled to do be obliged to do have to send the child to various / a variety of / different kinds of / diversified be obliged to these linguists grateful to …the chance of being admitted to ideal schools
The ongoing transformation from…to…
brings hope to Test-oriented education / teaching transform shift convert switch Transformation transition conversion shift bring hope to innovations in teaching methodology ensure assure insure make sure reassure rest assured reassuringly …the chance of being admitted to ideal schools, only to kill / eliminate / destroy / strangle / extinguish the creativity and imagination imaginary fictional fabricated imaginative image Not necessarily For parents, the child’s education is the most important / the top priority, who are compelled to … ….. for parents, who are compelled to send the child to various / a variety of training courses to increase the chance dim slender slim chance of
人人都有追求幸福的权利，但实现幸福的方 式取决于经济状况、家庭背景和教育水平。 尽管人们对幸福的定义不同，但绝大多数人 认为幸福来自于健康的身体、自己喜爱的工 作和牢固的夫妻关系。许多人在遇到痛苦时 才想每天都幸福是什么样的感受。 It is not until they feel miserable that many people begin to wonder what it is like to stay happy each day. I don’t know why some people won’t do what it ____ to be successful. takes involves means likes what it takes to do… what it is like to do… what it means to do… Suffering one suffers feel miserable / distressed upset depressed be in pain agony they are agonized Not…until It is not until…that…
It was not until I received her email that I learned…. Strong marriage left-over Arise from / stem from result from Be entitled to sth free bus rides bus riders be eligible for Manner s approach method form way in this manner / fashion novel approaches to cancer The overwhelming majority By far so far to date up to now To my liking to my taste A house to my taste a job to my taste Be attached to like appeal to This song never appeals to me A letter to the countrymen
7． 随着社会的发展，人类对水的需求不断 增加，但现有的可供人类使用的水资源却 急剧减少。水资源危机所带来的生态系统
恶化等问题严重威胁着人类的生存。如何 通过减少水的消耗来有效地利用水资源， 已成为世界共同面对的紧迫问题。 How to make effective use of water by reducing water consumption / consuming less water has become / proved to be an urgent / a pressing problem A problem facing China ……………China is facing /faces …………………….is faced with …………………….faces with …………………….is faced Face death be faced with Faced with…, I Human survival / existence survival of the fittest Deteriorate deterioration worse worsen the worsening situation The deterioration of the ecosystem = the worsening ecosystem Problems caused by / brought about by the crisis over water resources, such as….,
threat threaten fright frighten Threaten ….seriously Bring into full play make full use of Bring sth under effective control Pose a serious threat / risk / menace / hazard to As society develops / advances with social progress along with social advances Human demand for water …resources are declining sharply / in sharp decline on the increase 在过去 20 年中， 世界上没有任何一个国家 的外贸发展速度像中国那么快。 No country has developed f t so fast as China China has developed f t faster than any other country / the rest of the world / elsewhere in the world / has surpassed all the other countries in terms of the rate of development of f t There is no country where foreign trade has been developing as fast as in C
Foreign trade…/ The rate of development of foreign trade has been the highest in Over the past twenty years four score and seven years ago, a government of the people, for the people and by the people shall never perish from the earth of the A government is the best which governs least Double triple quadruple = increase four times / fourfold
日本用了 20 多年时间才将其外贸总额翻 一番，而中国却翻了两番。中国现在已 是全球第三大电器生产国，并且正在成 为全球电器市场的主角。中国还是世界 上劳动密集型产品的主要生产国。 Play a leading role / part in Labor-intensive intensive farming The third biggest producer / producing country of electric appliances She is most clever the most clever The total amount volume aggregate
GDP gross domestic product Instrument facilities equipment device devise apparatus appliance electric appliances household appliances Double triple quadruple increase four times fourfold quadruplet Japan took over twenty years to double sth while China increased it fourfold The third
biggest producer / producing country of electric appliances instrument
equipment facilities device apparatus Household appliances play a leading role in is beginning to dominate global markets labor-intensive products
中国现在已是全球第三大电器生产国， 并且正在成为全球电器市场的主角。 中国还是世界上 劳动密集型产品的主要生产国。
9． 任何一个对中国有偏见的外国人都应亲自 来中国看看。来中国的很多外国游客吃惊地发 现在以前是又脏有穷的地方出现了现代化小 区。私车已不再是奢侈品。他们的所见所闻使 他们得出的结论是：中国远非落后，而是在高 速发展。中国具有广阔的发展空间. Your work is far from …. Satisfied satisfaction satisfactory satisfy Luxury a luxuries luxurious gz Extravagant wasteful Valuables purchase ..lead sb to the conclusion / conviction / belief / recognition / fear… Conclude a speech meeting
Bring sth to a successful conclusion No longer no more…. Cease to be Modern neighborhoods have emerged in the place where used to be poor and dirty ….emerged where used to / which used to be ..in the place which used ….in what used to be… ..was born in what is now part of Gy…. …landed in what is now between New York and Boston Poor impoverished poverty-stricken areas I surprised to find… I was surprising to find… I was surprised to find… I found…surprisingly To my surprise, I found…. She looks disappointing ed She is frightening ed This book is disappointing I was interesting in… Prejudice discrimination racial attack bias violence against
Any foreigner who has prejudice against China is to / is expected to come to see China Think see find prove create discover By yourself for yourself to yourself …the difference ___ the four words Among between amid in
Filthy Luxury k luxurious gz a luxury valuables Modern neighborhoods have emerged in the area which ( in what used to be) used to be poor and dirty I was born in what used to be part of L province Neighborhood obama used to live in a poor
Poor impoverished poverty-stricken areas To my surprise, I find…
I am surprised to find… Surprise astonish astound startle dismay amaze I surprise to find… I’m surprising to find I find…surprisingly She looks disappointing She is frightened ing
…but is fast-developing China has / promises wide space for development prospect …be committed to sth No longer no more a luxury ies luxurious extravagant wasteful What they see and hear leads them to the conclusion that… belief recognition awareness fear conviction that … Conclude a speech meeting
Your work is far from ____. Underdeveloped backward South bound vehicles clockwise satisfaction satisfied satisfactory satisfy
Tourists visitors to this school are surprised to find Surprise astonish astound shock dismay amaze stun startle filthy poor underdeveloped poverty-stricken area impoverished community district region zone time no-fly zone neighborhood …find that modern neighborhoods have emerged in the place which used to be poor and dirty …emerged in what used to be… I’m surprising to find… I surprise to find… I’m surprised to find I find…surprisingly
She is disappointing ed she looks …ing ed Shocked silence Success succeed achieve success be a success only working hard can you…only by when occasionally only this way can Requires hard-working diligent a goal target as far me In this process, if you work hard, you can… If one is confident, he will Confidence can lead to success If you never work hard, you can’t According to the latest research, tea, especially green tea, regular drinkers of tea are one third less likely to catch cold / have a cold be twice less likely to do sth China is rich in…. Oil-rich countries ..contains protein, antioxidants and more than ten types of vitamin. Not only can tea regulate physical functions, refresh and relieve fatigue. Compared to with in comparison with comparing with#
Little negligible trivial unimportant nothing minor
不同国家有不同的习俗。在某一国家被认为 是礼貌的行为在另一国家看起来是对人不 敬。国家的历史越悠久，习俗种类越多。跨 国公司十分明智，设法使雇员熟悉相关国家 的文化。在国外旅游时，游客有必要了解当 地的习俗。避免冒犯别人的关键就是“入乡 随俗” 。 The larger the variety of customs, Multinational companies are wise / intelligent / smart she has yet to realize Too…to enough…to so…as to only to yet to lazy as to leave his feet unwashed many days
a multitude of many Customs Differ considerably from vary from…to… range from…to…. Change from…to… Polite behavior good manners Impolite offensive Respect respective respectable respectful disrespectful
Countries concerned ..are wise enough to manage to Know familiar acquaint / familiarize sb with / make sb
familiar with… …are wise / intelligent / sensible Sensitive to sensational sentimental detrimental fundamental The more…more The longer the history of a country (is), I’m too sleepy to keep my eyes open Vary variation variety various invariably The larger the variety of customs Has a larger variety of …than… Esteem self-esteem esteemed respect respective respectable respectful Irrespective of = regardless of Disrespectful offensive What is regarded as / considered good manners in one country may seem offensive in another … multinationals vary from…to… range from…to… differ from change from…to…. Customs vary from country to country
Good manners polite behavior decent Mind your manners have no manners
The key to avoiding offending others / any offense is to do as the Romans do when in Rome. Tourists need to
Finding out about these universities is very easy …with access to the Internet trip journey excursion voyage know know of find find out travel ride hike tour go hiking
multinational companies are
wise / sensible / intelligent acquaint / familiarize sb with… Make acquaintances with the countries concerned Sensible sensitive sensational sentimental fundamental
What is considered (regarded as) good manners in one country may seem offensive in another the longer the history of a country (is), the more various the customs …the larger the variety of customs Polite behavior good manners you have no manners mind your manners Respect respectively respectful respectable offensive disrespectful irrespective of = regardless of Different differ from vary from person to person range from…to… Invariably Putin
…is to do as the Romans do when in Rome
1． 任何一个对中国有偏见的外国人都应亲自来中国看看。来中国的很多外国游客吃惊地发 现在以前是又脏有穷的地方出现了现代化小区。私车已不再是奢侈品。他们的所见所闻 使他们得出的结论是：中国远非落后，而是在高速发展。中国具有广阔的发展空间。 Anyone who has any prejudice against China is supposed to come to see China for himself / pay a personal visit to China. Many foreign visitors to China are surprised to find modern neighborhoods have emerged in what used to be dirty and poor. Private cars are no longer luxuries. What they see and hear lead them to the conclusion that China is far from backward, but is fast-developing. China has a good prospect for development. 2． 不同国家有不同的习俗。在某一国家被认为是礼貌的行为在另一国家看起来是对人不 敬。国家的历史越悠久，习俗种类越多。跨国公司十分明智，设法使雇员熟悉相关国家 的文化。在国外旅游时，游客有必要了解当地的习俗。避免冒犯别人的关键就是“入乡 随俗” 。 Customs vary from country to country. What is regarded / counts as good manners in one country may seem disrespectful in another. The older the country, the more diversified the customs. Multinationals are wise enough to manage to familiarize the employees with the culture of related countries. When travelling abroad / overseas / while on a tour abroad, tourists need to learn about local customs. The best way to avoid any offence is to “do as the Romans when in Rome”. 3． 根据最新的研究，经常喝茶的人患感冒的概率可降低 1/3 左右。茶，特别是绿茶，含有 丰富的蛋白、抗氧化剂和 10 多种维生素。茶不仅能调节生理功能，还能提神、缓解疲 劳和增强免疫力。同茶的益处相比，其副作用是微不足道的。
作为一种流行的娱乐形式，小说的功能与教材 不同。小说有助于人们了解社会现实，而教材 旨在系统传授知识并提高智力水平。经典小说 的魅力持久不衰，所以某种意义上讲，小说比
教材更具有深刻的社会意义。但有时，与其说 读小说是好事，不如说是坏事。 Sometimes on some occasions at times For beneficial purposes for hostile / evil purposes …is more of a curse than a blessing A blessing in disguise In some sense, in a way fiction is of more profound social significance make an in-depth study gain keen insight into be impressed by his profundity of k many multitude Classic fiction charm glamour fascination attraction lure appeal lasting endure enduring = lasting enduring appeal persist endure swear in be sworn in office be …make one more clever improve your intelligence / IQ intellectually bright / brilliant
Improve one’s intellectual power Intellectual property rights CIA …to instruct impart k systematically pass give systematic instructions Are intended to / aim to Fiction can help find out about / learn about social realities Turn sth into realities Fun form of entertainment amusement recreation play work and play take various forms in the form of entertain oneself by doing differentiate indifferent to 4．
在任何文化当中，诚实都一直是最重要的 价值观之一。诚实有助于赢得他人的信赖 并维持朋友关系。一个被认为是习惯上不 诚实的人不值得尊敬和信任。在假话和造
假盛行的社会，需要政府和个人长期努力 才能扭转局面。 The g and individuals need to make chronic efforts to reverse the situation It takes the long efforts of the g and ind to In a society where lies and fakery prevail In a society dominated by lies …. In a society afflicted with .. inflict losses One who is believed to be habitually dishonest is not worthy of respect and trust / doesn’t deserve / merit love / is not respectable and trustworthy I’m healthy physically and mentally Fake paper fakery plagiarism in any culture in each culture honesty can help win others’ trust and maintain friendship keep sth alive believe believe in trust reliable trustworthy have faith in
已决定考研的学生在英语上投入大量时 间，希望考试成绩越高越好。但试图通过 背范文提高英语水平的做法是不明智的。 Advisable desirable undesirable inadvisable leave much to be desired I’ll try my best to learn to work Remember recall recollect remind memorize new words learn by heart know by heart recite sample writing model writing to improve one’s E EPT WSK The most surprising thing about students in China is the failure to / inability to express themselves in authentic / idiomatic E 中国学生最令人吃惊的地方是不能用地道 的英语表达自己的想法。对于写作来说， 语法规则、词的用法和背景知识都一样重
要。 …are equally important ……………of equal importance ……………equal in importance Hope for sth Ingredients toxicity hoping to get the highest possible score get as high a score as possible find as good a job as decide on determine / be determined to do resolve make up one’s mind be bent on doing be set to do hope sb in the hope of doing hopefully hopelessly terrible my father have teached me
Grammar the usage of words and b g are equally important We are the same busy What is the most surprising about students
in China is the inability to (is that they can’t ) / lack of the ability to / failure to express themselves in authentic / idiomatic E Try my best to learn to work come Advisable desirable it is undesirable to try to / attempt to / seek to improve one’s English proficiency by model writings / sample writings A good mastery / command / proficiency of E Take the entrance / admission test for graduate schools invest time in devote time to input sth in In the shortest possible time shortest time possible the highest possible score maximum make the fewest p mistakes spend the least p money find the most b possible girl
5． 与洪水不同，在人口密集的地方发生的 强烈（高强度）地震会造成重大损失和人
员伤亡。例如：76 年唐山地震的死亡人数 高达 24 万。各国政府被迫重视灾难的预测 并采取预防措施，目的是把灾难造成的损 失降低到最小程度。就应急而言，一些发 达 国 家 走 在 世 界 前 列 。 Calamity catastrophe and take precautions in order to minimize / reduce sth to the minimum reduce sth as much as possible / to the greatest possible extent Emergency response and preparedness World-leading lead the world take the lead in… a US-led war Losses caused by disaster Female-dominated sectors female-dominating Disease-carrying pest disease-caused pain Disaster-causing / caused losses Insect-eating birds insect-eaten plants E-speaking E-dominated world Be reduced to sth we are reduced to using this method Cancer is believed to have caused millions of
deaths so far. Far more people die from…than from.. Traffic accidents cause far more deaths than air crash The death toll of ….is much larger than that of… The people who die from…are more than… Quake shiver quiver with cold tremble shake strong attitude multitude aptitude altitude magnitude fortitude densely-populated sparsely-p …can cause heavy losses and high casualties Take a heavy toll of human lives damage the death toll 6． 我们经常思考成功需要哪些因素。成功， 不论大小，都需要努力、机遇和灵感。如 果爱迪生在失败几次后就放弃，我们现在 就可能借助蜡烛看书。同样，艺术家找不 到灵感时也难实现突破。问题是现在人们 倾向于根据财富和名望评价成功。
The question is that people tend to evaluate success in terms of wealth and reputation Officials at the grass-roots’ level In the absence of without any sparkles of inspiration artists ____ have difficulty making breakthroughs Have a good / hard time doing Think of everything in terms of____ money Who would you rather ____ with you? went go goes gone I would rather you did sth it is time you did sth Development of personality to some extent largely Decide determine make up one’s mind be bent on doing be set to do We are determined to the determination to do is unshakable Although it is difficult to determine the extent to which parents influence the child, The means by which we collect information The language in which we publish academic
papers abroad I was impressed by the interest with which she listened to… The speed at which g is improving the infrastructure The conditions under which we conducts experiments The medium in which we culture cells The perspective from which we look at historical issues The channels through which we raise money Effect affect influence impact implications 尽管父母对孩子个性形成所影响的程度 是很难判定的，但父母无疑是孩子的榜 样。 正面影响会使孩子终身受益。 Positive influence can benefit the child throughout his life / all his life …………………………. be of lifelong benefit for the child / output yield lifelong benefits unyielding
Let the bullets fly Send bullets flying about 孩子通过观察父母的言行学会如何做人 和如何与他人交往。不论受多少正规教 育，都无法取代父母的作用。但是，单 亲家庭的增多对青少年的成长不利。 The child learns how to behave himself / conduct himself / and get along with / interact with others by observing what parents do and say. No amount of formal education / schooling can replace / take the place of the role of parents/ the parental role PT meetings the increase of single-parent families is conducive to / fundamental sentimental instrumental detrimental to hinder obstruct inhibit prohibit inhabit be habituated to exhibit She missed the train ____ five minutes. for by in during the problem ___ this computer is that….
for on with to be in the way of be in my way get rid of everything in the way. 7． 读书有很多益处， 如获取知识和消磨 时光。 当你全神贯注读书时， 就忘记了 烦恼。 博览群书的人特点是知识面宽和 习惯于提及读过的人物。 此外， 读书可 增添个人魅力。 另人遗憾的是， 同发达 国家相比， 中国人花在读书上的时间少 得令人吃惊。 His speech is impressively eloquent …unforgettably amusing ….the noise is Disturbingly loud …maddeningly loud …by knowledgeableness erudite erudition profound k …by a wide range___ of k…and the habit of mentioning the characters they have read about. Also, reading can add to one’s
personal charm / appeal . …spend surprisingly little time on reading Those who read a lot / extensively the well-dressed well-fed well-travelled the well-read well-learned The well-read are characterized by… What characterizes sb is… Natives of B….by talkativeness Reading has many benefits / is of multiple benefits, such as knowledge acquisition and kill time idle away beguile Concentrate on focus on be absorbed in doing be lost in doing be immersed in doing put one’s mind to / read attentively trouble misery Forget to do doing forget about
8． Stunningly shockingly Sb is unbearably / intolerably lazy. Spend a surprisingly large sum of money on… be incurably ill …be characterized by a wide range of k and the habit of mentioning the characters they have read about. Reading can add to personal charm / appeal Knowledgeable erudite erudition What characterizes sb is… It is typical of sb to do… People who read a lot / extensively / do a lot of reading the well-dressed well-informed the well-read well-fed well-traveled Reading is of multiple benefits / can benefit in many ways, such as k acquisition and killing of time Kill idle away beguile my time Concentrate on reading be focused on
be absorbed in / be lost in read attentively be immersed in trouble worry misery annoyance affliction misgiving Forget to do… doing forget about Read read about know know of tell me sth about sth
9． 10． 11． Reading can add to one’s personal charm / appeal. It is a shame what a shame! Unfortunately, spend surprisingly little time on reading. This exam is frustratingly difficult A frighteningly new world …amazingly moving Despairingly Tedious dull boring
People who read extensively / widely the well-read well-informed well-travelled The well-read are characterized by / what characterizes sb is...a wide range of k erudite erudition and the habit of mentioning the characters they have read about tell me about the truth of life Reading has many benefits / is of multiple benefits / can yield many benefits / is beneficial in many ways, such as k acquisition / acquisition of k, and killing of time concentrate on reading / be lost / absorbed in reading / read attentively / be immersed in be lost to be indifferent to you’ll forget your trouble / worry Forget forget about forget doing / to do 12． Idle away kill beguile one’s time Calculations that might have taken months
to finish decades ago now only takes a few minutes What might have taken months to calculate ….now can be done in a few minutes I finished the experiment in half of the time you took / taken by you. The computer can finish calculations in a fraction of the time taken by humans. Ten minutes into the class, be fouled out halfway through the game, after ten years as a teacher, IT R&D PT meetings represents the level of development of a country
13． 计算机能帮助人们从事复杂的计 算。 几十年前可能需要数月完成的计算 现在只需几分钟。 Calculations that might take months to finish decades ago take a few minutes now. …ago can now be done in a few
minutes He finished two three-pointers in less time than it takes to read the sentence I finished the e in half the time you took / taken by you. The via the Internet help sb with be helpful sth helps a great good help Can’t help doing can’t help but do… assist sb in doing
IT sector industry represents the level of development of a country He finished the three-point in less time than it takes to read this sentence.
Calculations that / which might have taken months to finish decades ago take a few minutes now / can now be done in a few minutes I finished the experiment in half of the time taken by you / you took. The computer can finish calculations in a fraction of the time taken by humans.
Month done An Cell phone phone computer Internet via the Internet buy a cell phone (model) help sb with assist sb in doing helpful sth helps contribute to facilitate be instrumental in go a long way towards exercise ….. longevity
R&D of products and space exploration / probe increasingly depend on / are becoming increasingly dependent on the computer. Although there are both ad and dis to this teaching approach. / there are far more advantages than dis to the use of the computer / the adv of using the computer far outnumber disadv …. Is much more beneficial than harmful
产品研发和空间探索将越来越依赖计算 机。虽然使用电脑是利远远大于弊，但 有些棘手问题，如网上诈骗和黑客攻击。 R&D M&A merger and acquisition And space exploration / probe Cybercrime cyberdeception cyberterrorism cybertalking virtual marriage virtually dead hackers’ attack attack by hackers
…are becoming increasingly dependent on Formidable In the same boat she is under the weather I’m in the doghouse There are some exist remain tough difficult formidable a hard nut to crack
such as cyberdeception cybercrime and hackers’ attack the attack of hackers the attack by hackers Helpful be f helpful or sth help s improve assist sb in doing contribute to facilitate Be instrumental in go a long way towards : help a great deal Cell phone computer Internet the
14． 热带雨林被喻为地球之肺， 其重要 功能是生产二氧化碳和调节全球气候。 由于木材需求量的增加， 雨林的面积在 逐渐减少， 直接威胁许多珍惜物种的生 存。追求短期效益将导致长期的痛苦。 保护生物多样性需要牺牲个人的利益。 可惜的是相关国家政府并未达成共识。 …, the important function of which is to generate carbon dioxide and regulate the global climates. It is he who… it is he… it is he… Tropical rainforests are compared to / Be known as to for to sb as…. …the lung of the earth the earth lung On the earth on Earth on earth
15． 20 年来，中国人的生活方式发生很大变化。缺乏运动使超重的人增多，不健康饮食习 惯导致慢性病流行，观念的改变也使离婚率直线上升。这可能是我们为现代生活节奏必 须付出的代价。上述问题没有理想的解决方案，但学会放弃有时会有帮助的。 16． 令许多人困惑的是美国中小学提供的课程要比中国简单得多，可到美国学生上大学 时，许多方面的表现超过中国大学生。主要原因是美国大学教育注重培养解决问题的能 力。在自由的学术气氛中，学生有机会利用最先进的教学设备并能取得独特的发现。 17． 自上世纪 90 年代初至今，中国的旅游业在蓬勃发展。同 2005 相比，2009 年旅游业收 入几乎翻了一番。游客们只要觉得值就去，不在乎距离和费用。但目前一个盛行的不明 智做法就是提高门票价格。有远见的旅游管理者们应考虑到老百姓的利益。
18． 中国是个人多地少的发展中国家，耕地占世界总量的 5%。改革开放以来，土地的需 求一直在增加。房地产开发、基础设施等基本建设项目都需要占用大块的土地。城市化 为农村剩余劳动力创造了就业机会，但同时也使许多人失去了赖以生存的土地。